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References and further reading

Bush (1945) foreshadowed the Web when he described an information management system that he called memex. Berners-Lee et al. (1992) describes one of the earliest incarnations of the Web. Kumar et al. (2000) and Broder et al. (2000) provide comprehensive studies of the Web as a graph. The use of anchor text was first described in McBryan (1994). The taxonomy of web queries in Section 19.4 is due to Broder (2002). The observation of the power law with exponent 2.1 in Section 19.2.1 appeared in Kumar et al. (1999). Chakrabarti (2002) is a good reference for many aspects of web search and analysis.

The estimation of web search index sizes has a long history of development covered by Bharat and Broder (1998), Lawrence and Giles (1998), Rusmevichientong et al. (2001), Lawrence and Giles (1999), Henzinger et al. (2000), Bar-Yossef and Gurevich (2006). The state of the art is Bar-Yossef and Gurevich (2006), including several of the bias-removal techniques mentioned at the end of Section 19.5 . Shingling was introduced by Broder et al. (1997) and used for detecting websites (rather than simply pages) that are identical by Bharat et al. (2000).

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